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Basics of Marketing - Kotler Philip

Fundamentals of Marketing - Philip Kotler

Philip Kotler

Northvestern University

Marketing Essentials

Philip Kotler

Basics of marketing

Translated from English by V. B. Bobrova

General editorial and introductory article by EM Penkova

Moscow

Publishing house "Progress"

1991

BBK 65.9 (7USA)

K73

Editors: О.G. Radynova, Yu.I. Kukolev

To 0607000000-355 Bee Announced.

BBK65.9 (7USA)

The publication was prepared by the firm "Choro" with the participation of the fund "For economic literacy"

© 1984 by Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632 ISBN-0-13-557232-0

© Translation into Russian, introductory article, notes and design - Progress Publishing House, 1990



ZMIST


Opening of marketing. Introductory article
Foreword
Means to facilitate the assimilation of material
Chapter 1. The Social Basics of Marketing: Meeting Human Needs
The daily impact of marketing on consumers
What is marketing?
Needs
Needs
Inquiries
Goods
Exchange
Deal
Market
Marketing
Marketing Management
Marketing Management Concepts
The concept of improving production
Concept of product improvement
The concept of intensification of commercial efforts
The concept of marketing
The concept of social and ethical marketing
The objectives of the marketing system
Achieving the highest possible consumption
Achieving maximum consumer satisfaction
Providing the widest choice
Maximizing the quality of life
Rapid expansion of the marketing system
In the field of entrepreneurship
In the international arena
In the field of non-commercial activities
Summary
Issues for discussion
The basic concepts found in Chapter 1
Chapter 2. The process of marketing management
The take-off of the company "Miller Brewing Company"
Analysis of market opportunities
Identifying new markets
Evaluation of marketing opportunities
Selection of target markets
Measurements and forecasting of demand
Segmentation of the market
Selection of target market segments
Positioning of goods in the market
Development of a marketing mix
Implementation of marketing activities
Marketing planning system
The system of organization of marketing service
Marketing control system
Brief repetition of the topic
Summary
Issues for discussion
The basic concepts found in Chapter 2
Chapter 3. Systems of marketing research and marketing information
Marketing research is the key to the success of shampoo and Agri creamer
The concept of the marketing information system
Internal reporting system
System for collecting external current marketing information
System of marketing research
The system of marketing information analysis
Scheme of marketing research
Identification of problems and formulation of research objectives
Selection of sources of information
Drawing up a sampling plan
Ways of communicating with the audience
Summary
Issues for discussion
The basic concepts found in Chapter 3
Chapter 4. Marketing Environment
The failure of the cable television program CBS and the marketing environment that led to this failure
The main factors of the micro environment of the functioning of the company
Suppliers
Marketing intermediaries
Clientele
Competitors
Contact Audiences
The main factors of the macro environment of the functioning of the company
Demographic environment
The economic environment
The natural environment
Scientific and technical environment
The political environment
The cultural environment
Summary
Issues for discussion
The basic concepts found in Chapter 4
Chapter 5. Consumer markets and consumer buying behavior
"Corfam" firm "DuPont" - an expensive commodity failure
The model of consumer behavior
Buyer characteristics
Factors of cultural level
Factors of social order
Factors of personal order
Factors of psychological order
Purchase decision process
Awareness of the problem
search for information
Evaluation of options
Purchase decision
Response to purchase
Different options for deciding whether to purchase a new product
Stages of the perception process
Individual differences in people's readiness to perceive innovation
The role of personal influence
Influence of the characteristics of goods on the pace of its perception
Summary
Issues for discussion
The basic concepts found in Chapter 5
Chapter 6. The market of enterprises and the behavior of buyers on behalf of enterprises
Catering firms compete for the student market
Industrial goods market
Who acts on the market of industrial goods?
What purchases decisions are made by buyers of industrial goods?
Who participates in making decisions on the purchase of industrial goods?
What has a major impact on buyers of industrial goods?
How exactly do purchasers of industrial goods make purchasing decisions?
Intermediate sellers market
Government Market
Who acts in the market of state institutions?
Who participates in purchasing decisions on behalf of government agencies?
What is the main impact on purchasers of government agencies?
How do government agencies make purchasing decisions?
Summary
Issues for discussion
The basic concepts found in Chapter 6
Chapter 7. Segmentation of the market, selection of target segments and positioning of goods
"Coca-Cola" and "Pepsico" in the struggle for the market of non-alcoholic beverages that do not contain caffeine and sugar
Segmentation of the market
General approach to market segmentation
Basic principles of segmentation of consumer markets
SEGMENTATION BY GEOGRAPHIC PRINCIPLE
SEGMENTATION BY THE DEMOGRAPHIC PRINCIPLE
SEGMENTATION BY PSYCHOGRAPHIC PRINCIPLE
SEGMENTATION BY BEHAVIORAL PRINCIPLE
The basic principles of segmentation of markets for industrial goods
Selection of target market segments
Three options for market coverage
Identifying the most attractive segments of the market
Positioning of goods in the market
Summary
Issues for discussion
The basic concepts found in Chapter 7
Chapter 8. Development of goods: goods, brands, packaging, services
Visits of Avon salespeople justify themselves
What is a product?
The goods on a plan, the goods in real execution, the goods with reinforcement
The main types of goods classification
Durable goods, short-term goods, services
Classification of consumer goods
Classification of goods for industrial use
Decisions on the use of stamps
Decisions on vintage designations
Decision on the owner of the brand
The decision on the quality of the branded goods
Decision on the marital status of the brand
Decision to expand the boundaries of the use of the brand
The decision about a multi-brand approach
Decisions regarding packaging of goods
Decisions on marking
Solutions for customer services
Decision on the range of services
Service level decision
Decision on the form of service
Customer Service Department
Decisions on the product range
Decision on the breadth of the product range
Decisions on the Commodity Nomenclature
Summary
Issues for discussion
The basic concepts found in Chapter 8
Chapter 9. Development of goods: the approach to the development of new products and problems of the life cycle of goods
Procter & Gamble Corporation is engaged in the marketing of potato chips "Pringle"
Strategy for developing new products
Forming ideas
Selection of ideas
Development of the idea and its verification
Development of marketing strategy
Analysis of production and marketing opportunities
Development of goods
Tests under market conditions
Deployment of commercial production
Approach to the stages of the product life cycle
Stage of bringing products to the market
Stage of growth
Maturity stage
Stage of decline
Summary
Issues for discussion
The basic concepts found in Chapter 9
Chapter 10. Pricing of goods: tasks and pricing policies
Approaches of museums to establish the size of admission fees
Pricing on different types of markets
Setting pricing tasks
Demand definition
Methods for estimating demand curves
Elasticity of demand for prices
Estimating costs
Analysis of prices and products of competitors
Choice of pricing method
Calculation of the price by the method of "average costs plus profit"
Calculation of the price on the basis of break-even analysis and ensuring the target profit
Setting prices based on the perceived value of goods
Setting the price based on the level of current prices
Pricing based on closed bidding
Setting the final price
Summary
Issues for discussion
The basic concepts found in Chapter 10
Chapter 11. Pricing of goods: approaches to the problem of pricing
The success of the price policy of the firm "Hublin" to "Smirnovsky Vodka"
Approaches to the problem of pricing
Setting prices for a new product
Pricing within the scope of the commodity nomenclature
Setting prices by geographical principle
Setting prices with discounts and credits
Setting prices for sales promotion
Initiative price change
Initiative price reduction
Initiative price increase
Consumer reactions to price changes
The reaction of competitors to price changes
The firm's reaction to price changes by competitors
Summary
Issues for discussion
The basic concepts found in Chapter 11
Chapter 12. Methods of distribution of goods: distribution channels and goods movement
The flower industry in search of "pink" profits
The nature of distribution channels
Why do we need intermediaries?
Distribution channel functions
Number of channel levels
Channels in the service sector
Distribution of vertical marketing systems
Distribution of horizontal marketing systems
Distribution of multichannel marketing systems
Cooperation, conflicts and competition of distribution channels
Decisions about the structure of the channel
Identification of the main channel options
Channel Management Solutions
Selecting Channel Members
Motivating Channel Members
Evaluation of the activities of channel participants
Solutions for the problems of commodity circulation
The nature of commodity circulation
The objectives of commodity circulation
Processing orders
Warehousing
Maintenance of inventories
Transportation
Choose a mode of transport
Structure of management of company's movement
Summary
Issues for discussion
The basic concepts found in Chapter 12
Chapter 13. Methods of distribution of goods: retail and wholesale trade
Retail trade at discounted prices is gaining momentum
Retail
The nature and importance of retail trade
Types of retail trade enterprises
Proposed product range
Relative attention to prices
The nature of the retail space
Affiliation store
Variety of concentration of shops
Retail solutions for retailers
Wholesale
The nature and importance of wholesale trade
Types of Wholesale Enterprises
Summary
Issues for discussion
The basic concepts found in Chapter 13
Chapter 14. Promotion of goods: communication and incentive strategy
Comprehensive communication program of Pizza Inn
Stages of effective communication development
Identifying the target audience
Determination of the desired response
Selecting an appeal
Choice of means of information dissemination
Choice of properties characterizing the source of treatment
Feed-back flow accounting
Development of a comprehensive incentive budget and selection of incentive complex elements
Calculation of the general budget for incentives
Formation of incentive complex
Summary
Issues for discussion
The basic concepts found in Chapter 14
Chapter 15. Promotion of goods: advertising, sales promotion and propaganda
Successful campaign of the Columbia Records company to promote the sale of the albums of the band "Maine Work"
Advertising
Setting goals
Decisions on budget development
Decisions on advertising circulation
Decisions on the means of dissemination of information
Evaluation of the advertising program
Sales promotion
Setting the objectives of sales promotion
Selection of sales promotion tools
Preliminary testing of the sales promotion program
Implementing a sales promotion program
Evaluation of the results of the sales promotion program
Propaganda
Setting the objectives of propaganda
The choice of propaganda appeals and their carriers
Implementation of the propaganda plan
Evaluation of the results of advocacy
Summary
Issues for discussion
The basic concepts found in Chapter 15
Chapter 16. Promotion of goods: personal sale and sales management
The confidant of the firm "Merck and Co." promotes new medicines firms in Tennessee
Setting tasks for the sales office of the firm
Choice of the organizational structure of the trading apparatus
Basic principles of the work of the trading apparatus
Organizational structure of the company's sales office
The dimensions of the firm's sales office
System of payment for sales staff
Attraction and selection of sales agents
The importance of careful selection
The main features of a good sales agent
Procedure for recruitment of candidates
Training of sales agents
The basics of the art of selling
Control over the work of sales agents
Orientation of sales agents
Motivating Sales Agents
Evaluation of the effectiveness of trade agents
Information sources
Formal assessment of work
Summary
Issues for discussion
The basic concepts found in Chapter 16
Chapter 17. Strategy, planning, control
Strategic planning in loan business
Strategic planning
Program of the firm
Objectives and objectives of the company
Economic portfolio development plan
Growth strategy of the company
Marketing planning
Sections of the marketing plan
Marketing budget development
Marketing control
Profitability control
Strategic control
Marketing audit plan
Summary
Issues for discussion
The basic concepts found in Chapter 17
Chapter 18. International Marketing
Cold reception in Brazil soup "Campbell"
Studying the international marketing environment
International Trade System
The economic environment
Politico-legal environment
The cultural environment
Decision on the expediency of entering the foreign market
Deciding on which markets to exit
Decision on the methods of entering the market
Export
Joint business activities
Direct investment
Decision on the structure of the marketing mix
Product
Stimulation
Price
Distribution channels
Decision on the structure of the marketing service
Export department
International branch
Transnational company
Summary
Issues for discussion
The basic concepts found in Chapter 18
Chapter 19. Marketing services and marketing in the field of non-commercial activities
Hospitals use advertising to attract patients
Marketing services
Nature and main characteristics of the service
Classification of services
Scope of distribution and the importance of marketing in the service sector
Marketing organizations
Evaluation of the organization's image
Image planning and monitoring of its status
Marketing of individuals
Marketing of political candidates
Marketing places
Housing Marketing
Marketing of economic development zones
Marketing of investments in land ownership
Marketing of holiday destinations
Marketing Ideas
Summary
Issues for discussion
The basic concepts found in Chapter 19
Chapter 20. Marketing and society
Campaign for the Conservation of Water Resources in Palo Alto, California
Criticism of marketing by the public
The impact of marketing on individual consumers
The impact of marketing on society as a whole
The impact of marketing on other entrepreneurs
Citizens' actions on marketing regulation
Consumerism
The Movement for the Protection of the Environment
Measures of state regulation of marketing
Actions of entrepreneurs towards the development of socially responsible marketing
Moral principles of marketing
Summary
Issues for discussion
The basic concepts found in Chapter 20
APPENDIX A. Marketing Arithmetic
Report on the results of economic activity
Calculation of analytical coefficients
Extra charges and discounts
APPENDIX B. Career in marketing
Bibliography and comments
Author Index
Subject index