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Marketing Basics - Kotler Philip

Marketing Basics - Philip Kotler

Philip Kotler

Northvestern university

Marketing essentials

Philip Kotler

Marketing basics

Translated from English by V. B. Bobrov

General edition and introductory article by E. M. Penkova

Moscow

Progress Publishing House

1991

BBK 65.9 (7 USA)

K73

Editors: O.G. Radynova, Yu.I. Kukolev

To 0607000000-355 Bee announced .

BBK65.9 (7USA)

The publication was prepared by the Choro company with the participation of the For Economic Literacy Foundation

© 1984 by Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632 ISBN-0-13-557232-0

© Translation into Russian, introductory article, notes and design - Progress Publishing House, 1990



ЗМІСТ


Discovery marketing. Introductory article
Foreword
Means to facilitate the absorption of material
Chapter 1. The social foundations of marketing: meeting human needs
The daily impact of marketing on consumers
What is marketing?
Needs
Needs
Inquiries
Goods
Exchange
Deal
Market
Marketing
Marketing management
Marketing management concepts
Production Improvement Concept
Product Improvement Concept
The concept of intensification of commercial efforts
Marketing concept
The concept of social and ethical marketing
Marketing system goals
Achieving the highest possible consumption
Achieving maximum customer satisfaction
Providing the widest possible choice
Maximizing the quality of life
The rapid spread of the marketing system
In the field of entrepreneurship
In the international arena
In the field of non-profit activities
Summary
Issues for discussion
Key Concepts in Chapter 1
Chapter 2. Marketing Management Process
Takeoff of Miller Bruing Company
Market opportunity analysis
Revealing New Markets
Assessment of marketing opportunities
Target Market Selection
Measurements and forecasting demand
Market segmentation
Selection of target market segments
Market positioning
Development of a marketing mix
Implement marketing activities
Marketing planning system
Marketing Service Organization System
Marketing control system
A brief recap of the topic
Summary
Issues for discussion
Key Concepts in Chapter 2
Chapter 3. Systems of marketing research and marketing information
Marketing research is the key to the success of Agri shampoo and rinse cream
Marketing information system concept
Internal reporting system
The system of collecting external current marketing information
Marketing research system
Marketing Information Analysis System
Marketing research scheme
Identifying problems and formulating research objectives
Selection of information sources
Sampling Design
Ways to communicate with the audience
Summary
Issues for discussion
Key Concepts in Chapter 3
Chapter 4. Marketing Environment
CBS Cable TV Failure and the Marketing Environment That Caused This Failure
The main factors of the microenvironment of the company
Suppliers
Marketing intermediaries
Clientele
Competitors
Contact Audiences
The main factors of the macroenvironment of the company
Demographic environment
Economic environment
Natural environment
Scientific and technical environment
Political environment
Cultural environment
Summary
Issues for discussion
Key Concepts in Chapter 4
Chapter 5. Consumer markets and consumer buying behavior
Dupont's Corfam is an Expensive Commodity Failure
Shopping Behavior Model
Buyer Features
Cultural Factors
Social factors
Personal Factors
Psychological factors
Purchase Decision Process
Problem awareness
Search for information
Options Evaluation
Purchase decision
Purchase reaction
Various options for deciding on the purchase of new products
Stages of the perception process
Individual differences in the willingness to perceive innovations
The role of personal influence
The influence of product characteristics on the pace of its perception
Summary
Issues for discussion
Key Concepts in Chapter 5
Chapter 6. The market of enterprises and customer behavior on behalf of enterprises
Food Companies Compete for Student Market
The market of industrial goods
Who is on the market for industrial goods?
What purchasing decisions do buyers of industrial products make?
Who is involved in deciding on the procurement of industrial goods?
What has a major impact on industrial buyers?
How exactly do industrial goods buyers make purchasing decisions?
Reseller Market
Government Market
Who is on the market for government agencies?
Who is involved in procurement decisions on behalf of government agencies?
What has a major impact on government procurers?
How exactly do government agencies make purchasing decisions?
Summary
Issues for discussion
Key concepts found in chapter 6
Chapter 7. Market segmentation, selection of target segments and product positioning
Coca-Cola and Pepsico in the fight for the market for soft drinks that do not contain caffeine and sugar
Market segmentation
General approach to market segmentation
The basic principles of segmentation of consumer markets
SEGMENTING BY THE GEOGRAPHICAL PRINCIPLE
DEMOGRAPHIC SEGMENTING
PSYCHOGRAPHIC SEGMENTING
BEHAVIORAL SEGMENTING
The basic principles of segmentation of industrial goods markets
Selection of target market segments
Three options for market coverage
Identification of the most attractive market segments
Market positioning
Summary
Issues for discussion
Key Concepts in Chapter 7
Chapter 8. Development of goods: goods, trademarks, packaging, services
Visits of Avon salespeople justify themselves
What is a product?
Designed goods, real-time goods, reinforced goods
The main types of classification of goods
Durable goods, non-durable goods, services
Classification of consumer goods
Classification of industrial goods
Brand Decisions
Branding Decisions
Brand Owner Decision
Decision on the quality of branded goods
Brand Family Decision
The decision to expand the boundaries of the use of the brand
The decision of a multi-brand approach
Product packaging decisions
Labeling Decisions
Customer Service Decisions
Decision regarding a range of services
Service Level Decision
Service Form Decision
Customer Service Department
Product Range Decisions
The decision on the breadth of product range
Commodity Decisions
Summary
Issues for discussion
Key Concepts in Chapter 8
Chapter 9. Product development: approach to the development of new products and problems of the product life cycle
The Procter & Gamble Corporation is courageously engaged in the marketing of Pringle potato chips.
New Product Development Strategy
Idea Formation
Selection of ideas
Development of the concept and its verification
Marketing Strategy Development
Analysis of production and marketing opportunities
Product Development
Market Testing
Commercial deployment
Approach to the stages of the product life cycle
Stage of product launch
Growth stage
Maturity stage
Stage of decline
Summary
Issues for discussion
Key Concepts in Chapter 9
Chapter 10. Pricing: objectives and pricing policies
Museum Approaches for Admission Sizing
Pricing in different types of markets
Pricing problems
Demand definition
Demand Curve Assessment Methods
Price elasticity of demand
Cost estimate
Analysis of prices and products of competitors
Choosing a pricing method
Price calculation using the method of "average cost plus profit"
Price calculation based on breakeven analysis and target profit provision
Pricing based on the perceived value of a product
Pricing Based on Current Prices
Closed bidding
Final pricing
Summary
Issues for discussion
Key concepts found in chapter 10
Chapter 11. Pricing of goods: approaches to the problem of pricing
The success of the Hublin pricing policy for Smirnovskaya Vodka
Pricing Approaches
Pricing for a new product
Pricing in the framework of commodity nomenclature
Geographical pricing
Discount and Offset Pricing
Pricing for sales promotion
Initiative Price Change
Initiative price cuts
Initiative price increase
Consumer reaction to price changes
Competitors' reactions to price changes
The reaction of the company to changes in prices by competitors
Summary
Issues for discussion
Key concepts found in chapter 11
Chapter 12. Methods of distribution of goods: distribution channels and distribution
Flower industry in search of pink profits
The nature of distribution channels
Why do we need intermediaries?
Distribution Channel Functions
Number of Channel Levels
Service Channels
Distribution of vertical marketing systems
Distribution of horizontal marketing systems
Distribution of multichannel marketing systems
Collaboration, Conflict, and Distribution Channel Competition
Channel Structure Decisions
Identify the main channel options
Channel Management Solutions
Channel member selection
Channel members motivation
Channel Performance Assessment
Product Distribution Solutions
The nature of product distribution
Product Goals
Order processing
Warehousing
Inventory Maintenance
Transportation
Type of transport
The structure of the company's product distribution
Summary
Issues for discussion
Key Concepts in Chapter 12
Chapter 13. Methods of distribution of goods: retail and wholesale
Discounted retail is gaining momentum
Retail
The nature and importance of retail
Types of retailers
Suggested product range
Relative attention to prices
The nature of the retail space
Store Affiliation
Variety of store concentration
Retailer Marketing Solutions
Wholesale
The nature and importance of wholesale
Types of wholesalers
Summary
Issues for discussion
Key concepts found in chapter 13
Chapter 14. Product Promotion: A Communication and Incentive Strategy
Comprehensive communications program for Pizza Inn
Stages of developing effective communication
Target audience identification
Determination of the desired response
Choice of appeal
The choice of means of disseminating information
The choice of properties that characterize the source of treatment
Feedback flow accounting
Development of a comprehensive incentive budget and selection of elements of the incentive complex
Calculation of the total incentive budget
Formation of a stimulation complex
Summary
Issues for discussion
Key Concepts in Chapter 14
Chapter 15. Product Promotion: Advertising, Sales Promotion, and Propaganda
Successful Columbia Records Campaign to Promote Album Sales at Main Street Work
Advertising
Setting goals
Budget Decisions
Advertising Decisions
Media Decisions
Evaluation of an advertising program
Sales promotion
Sales promotion objectives
The choice of means of sales promotion
Pre-trial sales promotion program
Implementation of a sales promotion program
Evaluation of sales promotion program results
Propaganda
Setting objectives for propaganda
The choice of propaganda messages and their carriers
Implementing a Propaganda Plan
Evaluation of Outreach Results
Summary
Issues for discussion
Key Concepts in Chapter 15
Chapter 16. Promotion of goods: personal sale and sales management
Merck & Co. ° Advocacy Promoter Promotes New Tennessee Firm Medicines
Setting objectives for the company's trading apparatus
The choice of the organizational structure of the trading apparatus
The basic principles of the trading apparatus
The organizational structure of the trading apparatus of the company
The size of the trading apparatus of the company
Payroll system for sales staff
Attracting and selecting sales agents
The importance of careful selection
Key Features of a Good Sales Agent
Candidate recruitment procedure
Sales agent training
The basics of selling art
Monitoring the work of sales agents
Targeting sales agents
Motivation of sales agents
Evaluation of the performance of sales agents
Information sources
Formal Evaluation
Summary
Issues for discussion
Key Concepts in Chapter 16
Chapter 17. Strategy, planning, control
Loan Strategic Planning
Strategic planning
Company program
Tasks and goals of the company
Business portfolio development plan
Firm Growth Strategy
Marketing planning
Marketing Plan Sections
Budget Design Marketing
Marketing control
Profit control
Strategic control
Marketing audit plan
Summary
Issues for discussion
Key Concepts in Chapter 17
Chapter 18. International Marketing
Cold Reception Campbell Soup in Brazil
Exploring the international marketing environment
International trade system
Economic environment
Political and legal environment
Cultural environment
The decision on the feasibility of entering the foreign market
The decision about which markets to enter
Decision on Market Entry Methods
Export
Joint venture
Direct investment
The decision on the structure of the marketing mix
Product
Stimulation
Price
Distribution channels
Decision on the structure of the marketing service
Export department
International branch
Transnational company
Summary
Issues for discussion
Key Concepts in Chapter 18
Chapter 19. Service Marketing and Nonprofit Marketing
Hospitals use advertising to attract patients
Service marketing
Nature and main characteristics of the service
Service Classification
The extent and relevance of service marketing
Marketing organizations
Organizational Image Assessment
Image Planning and Monitoring
Individual Marketing
Political candidate marketing
Place Marketing
Housing marketing
Economic development marketing
Land Investment Marketing
Vacation Marketing
Idea marketing
Summary
Issues for discussion
Key concepts found in chapter 19
Chapter 20. Marketing and Society
Water Conservation Campaign in Palo Alto, California
Public criticism of marketing
The impact of marketing on individual consumers
The impact of marketing on society at large
The impact of marketing on other entrepreneurs
Marketing Regulatory Activities
Consumerism
Environmental movement
Government regulatory measures
Actions of entrepreneurs towards the development of socially responsible marketing
Moral principles of marketing
Summary
Issues for discussion
Key Concepts in Chapter 20
APPENDIX A. Marketing Arithmetic
Business Performance Report
Calculation of analytical coefficients
Markups and discounts from the price
APPENDIX B. Career in Marketing
Bibliography and comments
Name index
Subject index