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Marketing Basics - Philip Kotler

Basics of Marketing - Philip Kotler

Philip kotler

Northvestern university

Marketing Essentials

Philip Kotler

Marketing basics

Translated from English by V. B. Bobrov

General edition and introductory article E. M. Penkova

Moscow

Publishing house "Progress"

1991

BBK 65.9 (7US)

K73

Editors: OG Radynova, Yu.I. Kukolev

K 0607000000-355 Bee announced

BBK65.9 (7US)

The publication was prepared by the company "Choro" with the participation of the Foundation "For Economic Literacy"

© 1984 by Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632 ISBN-0-13-557232-0

© Translation into Russian, introductory article, notes and design - Progress Publishing House, 1990



ZMIST


Discovery marketing. Introductory article
Foreword
Means to facilitate the absorption of the material
Chapter 1. Social Marketing Basics: Meeting Human Needs
The daily effects of marketing on consumers
What is marketing?
Needs
Needs
Requests
Products
Exchange
Deal
Market
Marketing
Marketing management
Marketing management concepts
Production Improvement Concept
Product Improvement Concept
Concept of intensifying commercial efforts
Marketing concept
The concept of socio-ethical marketing
Objectives of the marketing system
Achieving the highest possible high consumption
Achieving maximum customer satisfaction
Providing the widest possible choice
Maximum improvement in the quality of life
The rapid spread of the marketing system
In the field of entrepreneurship
In the international arena
In the field of non-profit activities
Summary
Issues for discussion
Basic concepts found in chapter 1
Chapter 2. Marketing Management Process
Rise of the Miller Bruying Company
Market Opportunity Analysis
Identify new markets
Evaluation of marketing opportunities
Selection of target markets
Measurements and demand forecasting
Market segmentation
Selection of target market segments
Product positioning on the market
Development of a marketing mix
Implementing Marketing Events
Marketing planning system
Marketing Service Organization System
Marketing control system
Brief repetition of the topic
Summary
Issues for discussion
Basic concepts found in chapter 2
Chapter 3. Marketing research and marketing information systems
Marketing research is the key to success of shampoo and rinse cream "Agri"
The concept of marketing information system
Internal reporting system
System for collecting external current marketing information
Marketing research system
Marketing Information Analysis System
Marketing Research Scheme
Identification of problems and formulation of research objectives
Selection of information sources
Sampling plan
Ways to communicate with the audience
Summary
Issues for discussion
Basic concepts found in chapter 3
Chapter 4. Marketing Environment
The failure of the CBC cable television program and the marketing environment that caused this failure
The main factors of the microenvironment of the company
Suppliers
Marketing intermediaries
Clientele
Competitors
Contact audiences
The main factors of the macro environment of the company
Demographic environment
Economic environment
Natural environment
Scientific and technical environment
Political environment
Cultural environment
Summary
Issues for discussion
Basic concepts found in chapter 4
Chapter 5. Consumer markets and consumer behavior of consumers
DuPont Corfam - Costly Product Misfortune
Model of consumer behavior
Customer characteristics
Cultural factors
Social order factors
Personal factors
Psychological factors
Buying Decision Process
Awareness of the problem
Search for information
Evaluation of options
Purchase decision
Purchase response
Various options for deciding on the purchase of new items
Stages of the perception process
Individual differences of people in the readiness of perception of innovations
Role of personal influence
The influence of the characteristics of the goods on the pace of his perception
Summary
Issues for discussion
Basic concepts found in chapter 5
Chapter 6. The market of enterprises and the behavior of buyers on behalf of enterprises
Food service firms compete for the student market
Market for industrial goods
Who acts in the market of industrial goods?
What are the purchasing decisions made by buyers of industrial goods?
Who is involved in making purchasing decisions for industrial goods?
What is the main influence on buyers of industrial goods?
How exactly do buyers of manufactured goods make purchasing decisions?
Reseller Market
Government market
Who is in the government market?
Who is involved in procurement decisions on behalf of government agencies?
What is the main influence on public procurers?
How exactly do government agencies make procurement decisions?
Summary
Issues for discussion
Basic concepts found in chapter 6
Chapter 7. Market segmentation, selection of target segments and product positioning
Coca-Cola and Pepsico in the fight for the market of soft drinks, not containing caffeine and sugar
Market segmentation
General approach to market segmentation
Basic principles of segmentation of consumer markets
SEGMENTATION BY GEOGRAPHIC PRINCIPLE
SEGMENTATION ON DEMOGRAPHIC PRINCIPLE
SEGMENTATION ON PSYCHOGRAPHIC PRINCIPLE
SEGMENTATION ON A BEHAVIORAL PRINCIPLE
Basic principles of segmentation of industrial goods markets
Selection of target market segments
Three options for market coverage
Identify the most attractive market segments
Product positioning on the market
Summary
Issues for discussion
Basic concepts found in chapter 7
Chapter 8. Development of goods: goods, trademarks, packaging, services
Visits from Avon's salespeople justify themselves
What is a product?
Goods according to design, goods in real performance, goods with reinforcement
The main types of classification of goods
Durable goods, non-durable goods, services
Classification of consumer goods
Classification of industrial goods
Brand use decisions
Decisions on brand names
Decision on the owner of the brand
The decision on the quality of branded goods
The decision about the family of the brand
The decision to expand the use of the brand
Decision on the multi-mark approach
Product packaging solutions
Marking Decisions
Customer Service Solutions
Decision on the range of services
Service Level Decision
Decision on the form of service
Customer Service Department
Product range decisions
The decision on the breadth of the product range
Decisions regarding the product range
Summary
Issues for discussion
Basic concepts found in chapter 8
Chapter 9. Product Development: An Approach to Developing New Products and Product Life Cycle Problems
Procter & Gamble Corporation Bravely Marketing Pringle Potato Chips
New product development strategy
Formation of ideas
Selection of ideas
Design development and verification
Marketing strategy development
Analysis of production and sales
Product Development
Market Tests
Deploying commercial production
Approach to the stages of product life cycle
Stage of product launch
Growth stage
Stage of maturity
Decline stage
Summary
Issues for discussion
Basic concepts found in chapter 9
Chapter 10. Pricing of goods: objectives and pricing policy
Museums Approach to Sizing Admissions
Pricing in different types of markets
Setting pricing objectives
Determination of demand
Methods for estimating demand curves
Price Demand Elasticity
Cost estimation
Analysis of prices and products of competitors
Pricing Method Selection
Pricing using the “average cost plus profit” method
Pricing based on break-even analysis and ensuring targeted profit
Pricing based on perceived value
Pricing based on current price level
Pricing based on closed trades
Final pricing
Summary
Issues for discussion
Basic concepts found in chapter 10
Chapter 11. Pricing of goods: approaches to the problem of pricing
The success of the pricing policy of the company "Hublin" on "Smirnovskaya vodka"
Approaches to the problem of pricing
Pricing for a new product
Pricing in the framework of the commodity nomenclature
Pricing geographically
Pricing with discounts and offsets
Pricing for sales promotion
Initiative price change
Initiative price cuts
Initiative price increase
Consumer reactions to price changes
Competitor responses to price changes
The reaction of the company to price changes by competitors
Summary
Issues for discussion
Basic concepts found in chapter 11
Chapter 12. Methods of distribution of goods: distribution channels and product distribution
Flower industry in search of "pink" profits
Nature of distribution channels
Why do we need intermediaries?
Distribution channel functions
The number of channel levels
Service Channels
Distribution of vertical marketing systems
Distribution of horizontal marketing systems
Distribution of multichannel marketing systems
Collaboration, conflict and distribution channel competition
Channel structure decisions
Identify the main channel options
Channel Management Solutions
Channel selection
Motivating channel members
Evaluation of the channel participants
Solutions for product distribution problems
Nature of product distribution
Purpose of product distribution
Order processing
Warehousing
Maintain inventory
Transportation
Choosing a mode of transport
Structure of the management of the company's product movement
Summary
Issues for discussion
Basic concepts found in chapter 12
Chapter 13. Methods of distribution of goods: retail and wholesale
Retail at reduced prices is gaining momentum
Retail
The nature and value of retail
Types of retail trade enterprises
The proposed product range
Relative attention to prices
The nature of the retail space
Shop affiliation
Variety of store concentration
Retailer marketing solutions
Wholesale
The nature and significance of wholesale
Types of wholesalers
Summary
Issues for discussion
Basic concepts found in chapter 13
Chapter 14. Promotion of Goods: Communication and Incentive Strategy
Comprehensive Pizza Inn communications program
Stages of developing effective communication
Identifying the target audience
Determination of the desired response
Choice of treatment
The choice of means of disseminating information
The choice of properties that characterize the source of treatment
Feedback flow accounting
Development of an integrated incentive budget and selection of incentive package elements
The calculation of the total budget for stimulation
Formation of complex incentives
Summary
Issues for discussion
Basic concepts found in chapter 14
Chapter 15. Promotion of goods: advertising, sales promotion and promotion
Columbia Records' successful campaign to promote sales of the Men At Work orchestra albums
Advertising
Setting goals
Budget Decisions
Advertising Appeal Decisions
Media Distribution Decisions
Evaluation of the advertising program
Sales promotion
Setting targets for sales promotion
The choice of means of sales promotion
Preliminary testing of the sales promotion program
Implementation of the sales promotion program
Evaluation of sales promotion program results
Propaganda
Setting targets for propaganda
The choice of propaganda messages and their carriers
Implementing a propaganda plan
Evaluation of advocacy results
Summary
Issues for discussion
Basic concepts found in chapter 15
Chapter 16. Product Promotion: Personal Sales and Sales Management
Mercu & K ° sponsor promotes new drug firms in Tennessee
Setting targets for the firm’s trading apparatus
The choice of the organizational structure of the trading apparatus
The basic principles of the trading apparatus
Organizational structure of the trading apparatus of the company
The size of the trading apparatus of the company
Remuneration system for sales staff
Attraction and selection of sales agents
Importance of careful selection
The main features of a good sales agent
Candidate recruitment procedure
Training of sales agents
The basics of art selling
Monitoring the work of sales agents
Targeting sales agents
Motivating sales agents
Performance evaluation of sales agents
Information sources
Formal assessment of work
Summary
Issues for discussion
Basic concepts found in chapter 16
Chapter 17. Strategy, Planning, Control
Strategic Loan Planning
Strategic planning
Company program
Tasks and goals of the company
Business Portfolio Development Plan
Company growth strategy
Marketing planning
Marketing plan sections
Develop a marketing budget
Marketing control
Profitability control
Strategic control
Marketing audit plan
Summary
Issues for discussion
Basic concepts found in chapter 17
Chapter 18. International Marketing
Cold reception in Campbell soup Brazil
Exploring the international marketing environment
International trade system
Economic environment
Political and legal environment
Cultural environment
Decision on the expediency of entering the foreign market
Decide which markets to enter
Decision on market entry methods
Export
Joint business activities
Direct investment
Decision on the structure of the marketing mix
Product
Stimulation
Price
Distribution channels
Decision on the structure of the marketing service
Export department
International Branch
Transnational company
Summary
Issues for discussion
Basic concepts found in chapter 18
Chapter 19. Service Marketing and Nonprofit Marketing
Hospitals use advertising to attract patients
Service marketing
Nature and main features of the service
Service classification
The scale of distribution and the importance of marketing in the service sector
Marketing organizations
Evaluation of the image of the organization
Image planning and condition monitoring
Marketing individuals
Political Candidate Marketing
Marketing places
Housing Marketing
Economic Development Zone Marketing
Marketing Land Investment
Recreation Marketing
Ideas marketing
Summary
Issues for discussion
Basic concepts found in chapter 19
Chapter 20. Marketing and Society
Campaign for Water Conservation in Palo Alto, California
Public marketing criticism
The impact of marketing on individual consumers
The impact of marketing on society as a whole
Impact of marketing on other entrepreneurs
Citizens actions to regulate marketing
Consumerism
Environmental movement
Government marketing regulations
The actions of entrepreneurs in the direction of the formation of socially responsible marketing
Moral Marketing Principles
Summary
Issues for discussion
Basic concepts found in chapter 20
APPENDIX A. Marketing arithmetic
Report on the results of economic activity
Calculation of analytical coefficients
Markups and price discounts
APPENDIX B. Marketing Career
Bibliography and comments
Index of Name
Subject index