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Psychotropic drugs

By psychotropic drugs means drugs that have a specific therapeutic or prophylactic effect on the mentally ill.
This or that influence on mental functions can be provided by means used in different fields of medicine. Signs of CNS excitement or depression, attention disorders and mental workability, other central effects are often noted as side effects when using different medications.
A distinctive feature of psychotropic drugs is their specific positive effect on mental functions, which ensures their therapeutic activity in case of violations of the CNS.
The first modern psychotropic drugs were created in the early 50-ies of the twentieth century. Prior to this, the arsenal of funds used to treat mental illnesses was very limited and of little specificity. The main drugs used for this purpose were hypnotics and sedatives, insulin, caffeine; For convulsive therapy of schizophrenia, corazole was used. In neurasthenic disorders, mainly bromides, sedatives of plant origin, hypnotics in small (sedative) doses were used.
In 1952, the specific efficacy of chlorpromazine (aminazine) and reserpine in the treatment of mentally ill patients was found. Numerous analogs of aminazine and reserpine were synthesized and studied, and it was shown that derivatives of these and other classes of chemical compounds can have a beneficial effect in the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychoses, manic syndromes, neurotic disorders, acute alcoholic psychoses and other CNS disorders.
In 1957, the first antidepressants (iproniazide, imipramine) were discovered. Then, tranquilizing properties of meprobamate (meproton) and benzodiazepine derivatives were discovered.
A new group of psychotropic drugs - <nootropics>, whose first representative was pyracetam, appeared in the early 1970s.
The section of pharmacology dealing with the study of substances belonging to these groups was called "psychopharmacology," and the preparations of these types of action became known as psychopharmacological agents. These funds were combined into a common group of "psychotropic drugs".
At present, psychopharmacological means a wide range of substances that affect mental functions, emotional state and behavior. Many of them have found application as valuable medicines in psychiatric and neurological practice, as well as in general medicine. They are prescribed to patients with therapeutic, surgical, oncologic and other profiles for the treatment and prevention of borderline mental disorders.
Shortly after the discovery of the first psychotropic drugs, an attempt was made to classify them.
In 1967, the Congress of Psychiatrists in Zurich proposed to divide these drugs into two groups: a) neuroleptic substances used primarily for severe disorders of the CNS (psychosis), and b) tranquilizers used with less severe CNS dysfunction, the main Image with neuroses with a state of mental stress and fear. Neuroleptic substances in this classification include aminazine and other phenothiazine derivatives, reserpine; To tranquilizers - derivatives of propanediol (meproton, etc.) and derivatives of diphenylmethane (amisyl, etc.).
Neuroleptic substances were originally called "neuroplegics". Ter min < > (Agents blocking the nervous system) was suggested to refer to substances that cause "controlled inhibition of the neurogenic vegetative system" and are used for artificial sleep with cooling of the body (hibernation). The term "tranquilizers" corresponds to the concept of "sedatives". Tranquilizers were also referred to as << atracti >>, << antiphobic agents >>, << anxiolytic substances >>, etc. The Greek word << ataraxia >> means << peace of mind >>, << indifference >> (hence < >). The term < >, Or < >, Is associated with the ability of some drugs to have a calming effect in pathological conditions, accompanied by fear and emotional tension.
In 1966, the WHO research team proposed the following classification for psychotropic drugs.
A. Neuroleptics, they are also "antipsychotics", formerly referred to as "large tranquilizers", or "ataractics"; These include derivatives of phenothiazine, butyrophenone, thioxanthene, reserpine and the like. These substances have a therapeutic effect in psychoses and other mental disorders. Characteristically caused by these substances is a side effect - extrapyramidal symptoms.
B. Anxiolytic sedatives, formerly known as "small tranquilizers", which reduce pathological fear, tension, agitation; They usually have anticonvulsant activity, do not cause vegetative and extrapyramidal side effects; Can be addictive. These include meprobamate (meprotan) and its analogues, derivatives of diazepoxide (benzodiazepine on), including chlordiazepoxide (chlospide), diazepam (sibazone), and others.
V. A n ti d e p e s ss - substances used in the treatment of pathological depressive states. Sometimes they are also called "psychic energizers" and "timoleptics". This group includes the MAO inhibitor, imipramine (imizine), and other tricyclic antidepressants.
D. Psychostimulants, which include phenamine and its analogs, caffeine.
D. Psychodysleptics (hallucinogens), also called "psychosomimetic substances". This group includes lysergic acid diethylamide, mescaline, psilocybin, and others.
The terminology adopted in these classifications has, to one extent or another, been preserved, but the content of the concepts has changed somewhat. The classification of psychotropic drugs is also specified.
From the point of view of practical medicine, it is more expedient to divide psychotropic drugs into the following main groups: a) neuroleptics (antipsychotic drugs); B) tranquilizers; C) sedatives; D) anti-depressants; E) normotimic means; E) nootropic means; G) psychostimulants.
Each of these groups of psychotropic drugs is divided into subgroups depending on the chemical structure, the mechanism of action, the pharmacological properties and the therapeutic use of the drugs included in these groups.
Psychosomimetic substances, or hallucinogens, which have a strong psychotropic effect, but do not have the use as medicines, are not included in this classification of psychotropic drugs.

Subgroup Psychotropic drugs include drugs: